Systemic racism and the disproportionate criminalisation of children from indigenous, ethnic and other minority groups

Discrimination due to gender, sexual and gender identity, a gender justice focus.

Discrimination experienced by children and young people affected by migration, including refugees, unaccompanied foreign children, and children of foreign parents

Discrimination due to disability and health conditions

Discrimination due to substance use and abuse

Criminalisation of children’s online behaviour

Age limits and status offences

Ensuring that the voice of the child is heard in child justice systems

Fulfilling children's rights in the contexts of legal pluralism

Building resilient child justice systems in times of crises and pandemics

Tackling violence within child justice systems and ensuring child-friendly approaches for child victims, offenders, and witnesses